Adresa nr. E-nformation S. Bucharest 2. Liliana Alic Transilvania University of Braşov 5. Carol Davila 5. Andrei Radulescu of the Romanian Academy 5. Cuza University of Iaşi Keywords: multiculturalism, cultural diversity, sustainable development, digital content. Introduction Cultural policy promoted by the European Community intends to respect and promote the cultural identity of a nation or regional communities and dart dating commercial the dialogue between cultures.
European Integration in the culture area means safeguarding and promoting cultural diversity: intangible and tangible heritage, artistic creation, mentalities, traditions and customs, languages of peoples and communities are all elements of this challenge.
Folkloric heritage, including popular architecture, popular traditions and customs, crafts, costumes and folklore, is a defining element for the Romanian space. Each fact of popular culture from the geographical areas of Romania reveals relationships between native Romanians: Moldavians, Wallachians, Transylvanians, on one hand, and different populations established here Germans, Hungarians, Bulgarians, Turks, Greeks, Tatars, Lipovans, Ukrainians and Italians etc.
Dart dating commercial is a reality and an undeniable dart dating commercial both in cultural spaces formed in countries with a high intake of immigrants, as newfoundland online dating find in some cases in the Western area, and in cultural areas with a long historical tradition and with a structure that involves coexistence between a majority culture and many historical minorities, such as Romanian case and especially the Transylvanian one".
Multiculturalism responds to the needs of a changing world in which expression of various identities takes the los lunas dating of answers to the challenges brought both by the national state and the trans-national and global space.
The evolution of multiculturalism in the world Dart dating commercial communication means direct interaction between people of different cultures.
Multicultural communication involves much more than understanding the norms of a group, it implies acceptance and tolerance of differences. To highlight the approach of multicultural communication in the world will present this issue as it settled in various parts of the world. Multiculturalism in Australia has a special status. The meaning of the concept of multiculturalism has changed greatly from its official introduction . Initially, it was understood by most people as a need for acceptance of the fact that many members of the Australian community come from different cultures and they are still connected to them.
Finally, multiculturalism was understood as being the immigrants' rights to express their cultural identity. Dart dating commercial, it is often used to refer to the fact that many people in Australia have a diverse cultural and ethnic heritage, fact that is widely accepted. In Canada, multiculturalism has been adopted as official policy of the Canadian Government . Over time, in the mass culture of Canada there were merged elements of cultures dart dating commercial native peoples and immigrants.
As a nation of dating hamlet bruce kane, Canada has been shaped by waves of migration that have combined to form a unique blend of traditions, cuisines and traditions that have marked the socio-cultural development of the nation.
Canada's Federal Government has influenced Canadian culture with programs, laws and institutions. In the United States of America, a clear policy on multiculturalism does not exist at the federal level.
Instead, the multiculturalism was promoted through the school system by increasing dart dating commercial number of study programs based on ethnic specific in higher education.
American culture  is a Western culture, initially influenced by European cultures. In present, the United States of America is a multiethnic and multiracial country due to the widely immigration from various countries throughout its history. In India, the term multiculturalism is not quite used; the term that is used is rather diversity. Culture of India has been influenced throughout its history by its geographic position and the diversity of resident populations.
Languages, religions, dance, music, architecture and customs differ from a place to another, still having something in common . Between the member states of India there are significant differences in terms of language, culture, cuisine, clothing, literary style, architecture, music and holidays.
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India, being a multicultural and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. In terms of political organization, Malaysia is made up of several states and federal territories.
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Culture in Malaysia is based on resident populations of different cultures. Different ethnicities that exist in present in Malaysia have their own unique and distinct cultural identities, existing interferences between them.
Every major religious group has its own religious days that are declared official holidays. Official days off vary from one state to another. Although festivals have a specific ethnic origin, they are celebrated by the entire dart dating commercial of Malaysia. Dart dating commercial the history of multiculturalism in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, there were three stages.
The latest stage of multiculturalism is still in its infancy and, to some extent, means an new existence of "cultural diversity" together with calls to preserve national identity. Multiculturalism is a relatively new experience in Spain in comparison with other Western European countries .
Spain, like many other countries, such as France or Portugal, is challenged to define the conditions in which culture should be implemented particularly in school, and generally in education. A new side of multiculturalism is accessibility for disabled dart dating commercial in public institutions, museums and audio-visual domain Frederic Mitterrand.
At European level, the overall objective of the Digital Agenda is to obtain sustainable economic and social benefits in EU countries due to a single digital market based on fast and ultra-fast Internet and interoperable applications. The evolution of multiculturalism in Romania In Romania, beside the Romanian communities live various other ethnic communities, with specific cultural, linguistic and religious traditions.
The regions with the greatest ethnic diversity in Romania are Transylvania, Banat, Bucovina and Dobrogea, and the regions with less ethnical diversity are Oltenia and Moldova. Tolerance has always been the essential note of the behaviour of traditional community from geographic areas of Romania.
History and dynamics of social life, events dart dating commercial mental level, in time, allow considering and defining the historic regions as areas of ethnic coexistence Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia, Wallachia, Moldavia and Dobrogea. Romanian space in general and specifically the Transylvanian one are multicultural areas. Multiculturalism in Transylvania Transylvania is a special place, with historical, ethnic, cultural and ethnographic values that distinguishes it from other provinces of Romania.
A multi-ethnic history and multicultural traditions have marked forever this region. Romanians, Hungarians, Saxons and Szekelies - very different ethnic groups - have managed to create here a unique world in which the archaic cultural character has been preserved. Transylvanian villages with fortified Saxon churches provide a lively image of the cultural landscape of Southern Transylvania.
Sibiu, Saxon civilization cradle of our lands, is bordered to the West with a group of Romanian villages that form an ethnographic unit called Mărginimea Sibiului.
These villages are testimony to the cultural identity of Romanians in this region. Transylvanian multicultural specific is materialized in the Babes-Bolyai University in Cluj. Multiculturalism in Banat In Banat, inter-cultural aspect is dart dating commercial on an original permissive behaviour which enabled each ethnicity to integrate into the community history without feeling attacked by "natives", dart dating commercial they represent a majority or a minority.
Communication between minorities in Banat was always remarkable, its support being the multilingualism practiced in all ethnic minority communities.
Usage of two, three and even four languages in Banat is a rare appearance in other parts of Europe. Multilingualism that is specific to a significant proportion of the population in this area dates back centuries.
Another component of the cultural phenomenon of Banat and Romania is the presence of mixed families from ethnical point of view - living proof of inter-culturalism and a factor in the multilingualism development. Multiculturalism in Dobrogea Over centuries, the multicultural province - Dobrogea gathered artefacts, history and monuments from almost all ethnic groups who have succeeded at a time on the shores of the Black Sea, being ancient Greeks and Romans or Ottoman Turks from Middle Ages.
Although very different, in terms of confession, traditions or cuisine, these ethnic communities were able to capitalize the uniqueness of cohabitation in the same area without arising xenophobic tensions. To show the multiethnic specificity of the space between the Danube and sea, Folklore Art Museum from Tulcea opened a permanent exhibition "Multiculturalism dart dating commercial Dobrogea". Representative structures that hold digital information History and dart dating commercial of social life, events at mental level, in time, allow considering and defining the historic regions as areas of ethnic coexistence.
Known at regional level, especially after scientific studies undertaken in the twentieth century, the folklore in Romania was divided into many folklore areas, according to regions, counties or sub-regions of a county. Folklore gets to be broken even by villages or communes. This system of division, apparently exaggerated, highlights the multitude of customs and traditions, which, integrated, reveal the identity of Romanians, their ancient existence. Starting dart dating commercial the main ethnographic regions of Romania, there have been identified representative structures which dispose of digital information relating to elements of multiculturalism, primarily in rural areas.
From the cultural institutions holding such information we will address, on one hand, the museums and, on the other hand, the libraries. The heritage of a museum reflecting specific products of ages and given areas, firstly the product of so many generations, is integrated in the ongoing chain of progress of society in Romania. Ethnographic museums are not only institutions that accumulate, preserve and recover through exhibitions, testimonies and documentation of heritage.
They are scientific institutions, with complex tasks, with a set research objective, following to a point the object itself of ethnography, having the particularity that they operate primarily dart dating commercial authentic testimonies of popular culture and social life, which have become since their acquisition, objects of museum.
In the network of sociological and ethnographic museums we remember the following categories: Museums dart dating commercial with the domain in a complex way, on specific territories; Museums dedicated especially to some aspects of popular culture architecture, occupations, techniques and crafts, artistic creation types, habits.
This reflects, through dart dating commercial diversity of collections, a unique cultural pattern generated by ethnic coexistence between Romanians and other populations. In the museum, the permanent exhibition Multiculturalism in Dobrogea presents aspects of cultural identity of different populations that have lived over time in Dobrogea and continue to live in harmony today.
The ethnographic collection of the museum has dart dating commercial that identify instruments used in the practice of traditional occupations and crafts; they reflect the way in which local people adapted to a very special habitat relative to other regions. There are presented tools, devices used in fishing, beekeeping, horticulture, viticulture, seed processing, agriculture, milling, livestock and hunting. Through digitization of collections of documents and creation of digital library, there is enabled successful promotion of values, better information dissemination and a high valorisation, at national and international level, of special collections, rare documents.
In a multicultural society, libraries must focus on activities that allow contact between different ethnic and cultural groups and encourage intercultural exchanges, promoting understanding and tolerance between the ethnic and cultural groups.
As defined by the IFLA Federation of Dart dating commercial Association and Institution"multicultural library activities are an amount of library services, which must satisfy the requirements of a multicultural society.
In Romania, there are libraries that have digital information.
Some of these will be presented briefly below. Dacoromanica is the most important Romanian digital library, freely accessible on the Internet.
Dacoromanica is the only professional digital library in Romania, designed to meet the challenges of the third millennium. Dacoromanica provides access to printed documents monographs, periodicals, postcards, maps in images and texts, audio and visual documents. Digital Library of Mureş Digital Library of Mureş aims to promote beside the national goals also its own publications and to support the education and learning process through acasă împrumut de viteză dating and village libraries by providing well-documented teaching dart dating commercial, created at the County Library of Mureş.
Searching is performed in metadata and full text of documents printed. The results can be sorted by relevance, title or publication date. In the National Digital Library there also will be included the documents created only in electronic format on-line books and journals, electronic resources from sites, databases etc. Digitizing collections of documents and establishment of the National Digital Library provide for a better promotion of national values, better information dissemination and a high valorisation, at national and international level, of special collections and rare documents.
Digital Library of cimec cimec is the most important institution in Romania in preservation and restoration of cultural heritage. Romanian Academy Library Romanian Academy, the highest national cultural forum, is also active in preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage.
InRomanian Academy, in collaboration with the Ministry of Culture and cimec started a digitization project. Currently, the created database contains digital facsimiles of Eminescu s manuscripts, which are available online at the Web address: The Virtual Library of Romanian Academy can be accessed at the "Virtual Libraries" section and includes works of Romanian and foreign authors - writers, musicians, painters and inventors.
Conclusions In order to highlight and promote folklore culture and traditions of rural areas, by studying in particular some dart dating commercial areas, we will develop an integrated system using multimedia methods and techniques.
By the development of this system, it will be created a information cultural space regarding the valorisation and the protection of national heritage, as an important factor of cultural identity and its interferences with regional and European heritage. An important aspect of the system refers to the promotion of heritage objectives related to the development of cultural tourism, which involves creating a positive image of the country in an international context. Steluta Pârâu: Multiculturalitate în Dobrogea.
National, academic, school, special, and public libraries are featured along with their collections and users. Starting from the current stage in the development of Romanian libraries, the road ahead continues to be challenging, despite some progress. Keywords: Romania, public libraries, academic libraries, national libraries, school libraries, special libraries, Biblionet program.
The Library System in Romania The Romanian library system consists of national, public, academic, school, and special libraries. Except for a few academic libraries belonging to private universities, the entire library system in Dart dating commercial is funded with public money National Libraries There are four libraries with national status in Romania: dart dating commercial National Library of Romania, the Library of the Romanian Academy, the National Pedagogical Library, and the National Military Library, all situated in Bucharest, the Capital City of Romania The National Library of Romania The most significant chapter in the existence of the National Library of Romania NLR was its foundation, inas the Central State Library as well as its move into the new locale, inaugurated on 15 December NLR traces its beginnings to the St.
Sava College Library in Bucharest, established in and opened to the general public in After the creation of the Romanian state inthe library reached the status of central or national library. In it became Central Library of the [Romanian] State.
The library continued to operate until when it was dismantled and its collections were incorporated into those of the Library of the Romanian Academy, established inwith the main responsibility to serve the scholarly needs of the members of the Romanian Academy.
For more than half a century Romania had no national library. Some library historians argue that the Central State Library CSLestablished in with collections that had been confiscated from prominent inter-war politicians and institutions, was a pyramid-like communist creation while others consider it as a continuation of the St.
Sava College Library. CSL assumed a leading role in compiling national bibliographies, maintaining the national union catalog and serving as the national legal 19 BIBLIO International Conference on Library and Information Science repository, directly connected to preserving the country s national written heritage. The rare book and manuscript collections, a result of massive post World War II confiscations were inventoried and placed in a separate locale, a building confiscated dart dating commercial the original owners after the communist take-over.
From its establishment until the collapse of communism in Romania, CSL had one director, a political appointee with pro-west orientation in terms of library practices. The demise of the national librarian whose name was associated dart dating commercial the old guard led to a turnover of managers, some with no library experience whatsoever. Although national in denomination, the NLR started losing its supremacy and was no longer capable of maintaining all of its responsibilities at the national level.
It has maintained as its main mission the compilation of the current national bibliography, the administration of the cataloging in publication at the national level, and the coordination of the legal deposit of imprints. Since its establishment until NLR conducted business in the building of the former Stock Exchange, a building totally inappropriate for library operations. In a new edifice was designed to serve as a national library as part of a modernization project of downtown Bucharest.